Zoology in the Middle East
Volume 50, 2010
Kasparek Verlag, Heidelberg
Covered in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). Admitted to ISI Master Journal list and covered by the BioSciences Information Service (Biosis Previews) and Biological Preview (abstract/cover page)s, the Zoological Record and many other review organs.
Price per article: Euro 10.00 (plus Euro 2.00 postage/handling)
Yasin Ilemin, Behzat Gürkan
Status and activity patterns of the Caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776), in Datça and Bozburun Peninsulas, Southwestern Turkey (Mammalia: Felidae)
Abstract. We were able to document the presence of the Caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776), in southwestern Turkey in the course of a survey carried out in Datça and Bozburun Peninsulas between December 2007 and August 2008 with the help of camera traps. The Caracal was found to occur mainly (72% of the records) in pine woodlands with high habitat heterogeneity. 28% of the records are from maquis vegetation and this may be related to the high abundance of wild goats in this habitat, especially at the end of the winter season. However, no Caracal records were obtained from low scrub (phrygana) vegetation. Caracals were active during both day and night except for late morning and around midnight. Altogether, 13 medium-sized and large mammal species were detected during the camera trap survey.
Key words. Camera trap, Datça Peninsula, activity pattern, Felis silvestris, Middle East.
Boris Krystufek, Vladimir Vohralík, Jan Zima, Darina Koubinova, Elena V. Buzan
A new subspecies of the Iranian Vole, Microtus irani Thomas, 1921, from Turkey (Mammalia: Rodentia)
Abstract. Microtus irani Thomas, 1921, is known with certainty from two localities which are separated by a gap of almost 2000 km. In this paper we describe a population from Balkusan in Turkey as a new subspecies Microtus irani karamani. In a complete sequence for cytochrome b gene (1140 bp), the new subspecies has unique mutations when compared with a sequence of M. i. irani from the type locality (Shiraz, Iran) at 32 positions, and differs in 35 mutations and a mean nucleotide divergence of 3.19% ±0.50. It has 60 acrocentric chromosomes in the diploid complement. Morphologically, M. i. karamani ssp. n. is smaller than M. i. irani, with a shallower braincase, shallower rostrum, and shorter bullae. The new subspecies can be reliably separated from social voles occupying Turkey, Iran and adjacent regions of the Near East, by a combination of morphological, chromosomal and molecular data.
Key words. Microtus irani karamani subsp. n., taxonomy, cytochrome b, karyotype, baculum, Arvicolinae.
Roohallah Mirzaei, Mahmud Krami, Afshin Danehkar, Asghar Abdoli, Jim Conroy
Prey size selection of the Eurasian Otter, Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758), at the Jajrood River, Iran (Mammalia: Carnivora)
Abstract. Eurasian Otters, Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758), prey at the River Jajrood, east of Tehran, generally on fish between 3 and 21 cm in length, but the size range varied with different species and at different sites. The length of Alburnoides bipunctatus in the diet correlates with the length of fish found in the river, but a similar correlation is not found regarding Leucuscus cephalus and Capoeta spp. Otters appear to select these two species according to their size: L. cephalus and Capoeta spp. with a size between 9 and 15 cm and A. bipunctatus with a size between 3 and 9 cm. At site 2, a significant correlation was found between the length of A. bipunctatus in the diet and in the river, but there was no similar correlation for L. cephalus and Capoeta spp. As at site 1, otters appear to select L. cephalus and Capoeta spp. according to their length. At site 3, finally, we found a significant correlation between the length of A. bipunctatus and L. cephalus in the diet and in the river, but not in Capoeta spp. These results emphasise the diverse spectrum of the diet of the Otter in Iran. The differences between the three sites on the same river suggest that the Otter preys opportunistically.
Key words. Eurasian Otter, Lutra lutra, Jajrood River, diet, prey selection, feeding ecology, Iran.
Emine Arslan, Elif Gülbahce, Hilal Arikoglu, Atilla Arslan, Elena V. Buzan, Boris Krystufek
Mitochondrial divergence between three cytotypes of the Anatolian Mole Rat, Nannospalax xanthodon (Nordmann, 1840) (Mammalia: Rodentia)
Abstract. The Blind Mole Rats of Anatolia (Nannospalax xanthodon (Nordmann, 1840)) are characterised by prolific chromosomal diversification. While the geographic distribution of various cytotypes is well documented, opinions on their taxonomic ranking varies amongst authorities. A partial sequence (630 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in 13 Blind Mole Rats from the Konya basin, central Anatolia, which represented three distinct cytotypes (2n = 40, 58, and 60) yielded nine cyt b haplotypes. Phylogenetic reconstructions recognized three well supported lineages which matched diploid number counts. Genetic divergences between cytotypes were high (K2P between 8.16% ± 1.19 and 11.33% ± 1.42) and application of the 2% divergence rate to the net divergence estimates suggests their divergence about 3.84 and 5.43 Mya (95% confidence interval = 1.53-8.19 Mya). If one would rely on genetic operational criteria in species delimitation, there would be little doubt that the three Nannospalax cytotypes analysed in this study belong to distinct allopatric species. Before translating the results into formal taxonomy, more genetic information should be acquired on different Nannospalax cytotypes occupying the eastern Mediterranean.
Key words. cytochrome b, molecular phylogeny, chromosomal speciation, cryptic species.
Tuba Yagci, Yüksel Coskun, Nursel Asan
The tunnel structure of blind mole rats (genus Spalax) in Turkey (Rodentia: Spalacidae)
Abstract. The structure of the tunnels and burrows of mole rats (genus Spalax) was examined in Central and Southeastern Anatolia in the years 2002-2009. There are two types of mounds: linear ones and scattered ones. While a one-layer tunnel structure is observed in nearly all parts of Turkey, we also found three-layer tunnels, which were made in soft and moist soil. The tunnels made in moist soil were deeper than the ones made in hard soil. We found that mole rats blend the soil with their urine and produce a sticky mud with a bad odour in order to strengthen the walls of the opened galleries.
Key words. Spalax leucodon, S. ehrenbergi, Nannospalax, burrow, ecology, Turkey.
Ahmad Barati, Behrouz Behrouzi-Rad
Breeding success of the Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo Linnaeus, 1758, at Ramsar, northern Iran (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae)
Abstract. Factors influencing the breeding success of the Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo Linnaeus, 1758, were studied in the 2003 breeding season at the Ramsar colony in northern Iran. The mean brood size was 3.03, and early-breeders had significantly larger broods than later breeders. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the reproductive success between early and late breeders. There was no significant relationship between nest size and number of chicks fledged. The mean productivity was 2.88 young per breeding attempt, which means about 80% of eggs laid produced nestlings that reached the fledging stage. Daily nest survival was higher in the chick-rearing stage than in the incubation period, and most failures (ca. 60%) occurred during the incubation period. The results suggest that the Ramsar colony provides more favourable nesting conditions for Great Cormorants than do some of the other colonies studied throughout its range.
Key words. Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo, breeding success, daily survival rate, Ramsar, Iran.
Yakup Kaska, Eyüp Baskale, Rasit Urhan, Yusuf Katilmis, Müge Gidis, Fikret Sari, Dogan Sözbilen, A. Fuat Canbolat, Fevzi Yilmaz, Murat Barlas, Nedim Özdemir, Mehmet Özkul
Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the nest-site selection of Loggerhead Turtles, Caretta caretta, on Dalaman-Sarıgerme beach in South-west Turkey (Reptilia: Cheloniidae)
Abstract. The nesting activities of Loggerhead Turtles (Caretta caretta Stejneger, 1902) and anthropogenic factors affecting them were monitored over 7 years (2002-2008) on Dalaman-Sarıgerme beach, one of the main nesting grounds in Turkey. Out of the 2620 nesting emergences recorded during the entire study period, only 645 (24.6%) resulted in successful nesting, giving an annual mean number of nests of 92. The collective number of eggs in these nests numbered 50239, with 40079 (79.8%) of them producing hatchlings. Out of the total number of eggs laid, 8128 (16.2%) resulted in dead embryos and 2032 (4.0%) in unfertilized eggs. The mean incubation period averaged 49 days (range 40-67 days) and the mean clutch size was 79.0 (range 18-150 eggs). Turtle nests were more concentrated on the undeveloped parts of the beach than on developed parts. In the other sections, few emergences occurred and either no or few nests were recorded. In Section I, which contained hotels and water sports facilities, only a few non-nesting emergences were observed. Of the number of nests that were observed, 32% were laid in Section II, which contained recently built hotels, 60% were in Section III and 8% were in Section IV, the undeveloped portion containing beach rocks. There is very clear evidence that the Loggerhead Turtles are shifting their nesting sites to the undisturbed sites along the beach. The negative factors that seem to be affecting them include water sports, hotel lights and beach rocks. In order to protect sea turtles, there needs to be a better understanding of how effective beach protection can be established.
Key words. Loggerhead Turtle, Caretta caretta, nest site selection, anthropogenic factors, beach protection, beach rocks, water sports.
Semih Engin, Kadir Seyhan
Age, growth, reproduction and diet of the Flatsnout Goby, Neogobius platyrostris (Pallas, 1814), on the south-eastern Black Sea Coast of Turkey (Pisces: Gobiidae)
Abstract. Information is given on the age structure and growth, length at first maturity, annual cycle of gonad development and diet of the Flatsnout Goby, Neogobius platyrostris (Pallas, 1814), in the Black Sea of Turkey. The maximum age was found to be 5 and 6 years for males and females, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated from the mean age-length data for males and females (males: L∞ = 21.7 cm; females: L∞ = 16.3 cm) and the growth performance indices were calculated for males φ' = 4.21 and for females φ' = 4.03. The estimated length at first maturity was 9.29 and 7.50 cm for males and females, respectively. The spawning season was between March and June. Total fecundity ranged from 103 to 990, with an average of 553±82 ripe eggs/fish. The Flatsnout Goby feeds on a wide variety of prey items, particularly on Gammaridae, Brachyura, Pisces and Isopoda.
Key words. Neogobius platyrostris, age and growth, reproduction, diet, Black Sea.
Sara Reyhani, Sohrab Rezvani Gilkolaee, Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Hassan Fazli, Mohamad Porkazemi, Nazli Golestani
Microsatellite markers indicate a different structure among three populations of the Caspian Roach, Rutilus rutilus caspicus (Jakowlew, 1870), in the Caspian Sea (Osteichthyes: Cyprinideae)
Abstract. The population structure of Rutilus rutilus caspicus (Jakowlew, 1870) from two locations on the Iranian coastline and one location in Russia was investigated using microsatellite DNA markers. Genomic DNA from 90 specimens and seven loci with reasonable polymorphism were amplified using a PCR approach The results showed that the lowest mean number of alleles per locus (6.42) was observed in the Russian population and the highest (7) in the Gorgan Bay population. The observed heterozygosity in the Anzali Wetland (0.59) population was higher than the other populations in Iran (Gorgan Bay: 0.5) and Russia (0.52). Significant to highly significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were found at more loci in Iranian populations than in the Russian. Population differentiation was modest among all populations. The highest and significant (0.044; p≤0.01) population differentiation (Fst) value was between Iranian populations and Russian populations and the lowest and non-significant population differentiation (Fst) value was between Iranian populations (0.012; p≤0.07). The estimated gene flow (Nm) value between Iranian populations (Gorgan Bay and Anzali Wetland) across all the studied loci was the highest, while the Nm value between Iranian and Russian population was the lowest.
Key words. Microsatellite, Rutilus rutilus caspicus, genetic variation, Caspian Sea, Iran, Russia.
Ertan Taskavak, Sule Gürkan, Tuncay Murat Sever, Sencer Akalin, Okan Özaydın
Gut contents and feeding habits of the Great Pipefish, Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758, in İzmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey) (Osteichthyes: Syngnathidae)
Abstract. A total of 112 stomachs of the Great Pipefish, Syngnathus acus Linnaeus, 1758 (56 females and 38 males), was collected in İzmir Bay (Aegean Sea) and analysed in order to determine the feeding habits. 95 specimens (85.6%) were found with prey items in their stomachs. Zooplanktonic organisms were the main food and in terms of numerical (NO%) and frequency (FO%) of occurrence, four main prey categories were determined in the gut content of this species. The most dominant group was found to be harpacticoid copepods (33.6% NO; 57.7% FO), followed by Amphipoda (22.3% NO; 38.2% FO), cypris larvae (12.8%NO; 21.9%FO) and decapod crustaceans (9.5% NO; 16.3% FO), respectively. The numbers of their occurrence indicated that there were significant differences between the seasons. Seasonal differences in the gut content were found in 9 prey groups in spring (p<0.05) and 6 in winter (p<0.05), showing that feeding is more diverse in spring than in winter. Similarly, the number of occurrences indicated that there was a significant difference in the first (p<0.05) and fourth size groups (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in the feeding pattern between sexes (p>0.05). Consequently, small crustaceans were the most important prey to be consumed in all seasons by all size groups of Syngnathus acus, whereas decapod crustacean larvae/eggs, larger prey items, were preferred by larger specimens.
Key words. Syngnathus acus, gut content, size and season-biased feeding, Aegean Sea.
Alec B. M. Moore, William T. White, Richard Peirce
Additions to the shark fauna of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf (Carcharhiniformes: Hemigaleidae and Carcharhinidae)
Abstract. The diversity of the shark fauna of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf is poorly documented. Based on surveys of fish markets in Kuwait and Qatar we provide the first Gulf records of the Sliteye Shark Loxodon macrorhinus, and the first substantiated records of Snaggletooth Shark Hemipristis elongatus, Graceful Shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides and Hardnose Shark C. macloti. Based on photographs of misidentified specimens in historical literature we also add the Grey Reef Shark C. amblyrhynchos and Sharptooth Lemon Shark Negaprion acutidens to the Gulf fauna.
Key words. Elasmobranch, biodiversity, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia.
New and little-known land snails from Turkey (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)
Abstract: Schileykula (?) attilae sp. n. and Monacha (Methateba) georgievi sp. n. are described here from the Turkish provinces of Artvin and Bolu, respectively. Orcula zilchi Urbański, 1960 is reported from two additional localities, which extends the known distribution area of the species. Dextral and sinistral individuals of Imparietula ridvani Schütt, 1995 were found in one population.
Key words: Hygromiidae, Orculidae, Enidae, Monacha, Schileykula, reverse coiling, taxonomy
Shahrokh Pashaei Rad, Roohollah Abbasi, Gholamreza Soleimani, Libor Dvorak
New and supplementary information on the vespid fauna of Iran (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)
Abstract. Based on our data and the published literature, Euodynerus dantici dantici (Rossi, 1790), Euodynerus disconotatus sulfuripes (Morawitz, 1885), Euodynerus fastidiosus (de Saussure, 1853), Rhynchium acromum Giordani Soika, 1952, Tachyancistrocerus komarowi komarowi (Morawitz, 1885), and Polistes nimpha irakensis (Gusenleitner, 1976) are new records for the fauna of vespid wasps of Iran. New localities were found for some species and subspecies previously known in Iran.
Key words. Vespidae, new records, Iran, Middle East.
Elisa Riservato, Cristina Grieco, Francesca Pella, Roberto Sindaco, Fabio Pupin, Ahmed Saeed Suleiman, Mauro Fasola
A contribution to the knowledge of the odonatofauna of the Socotra Archipelago (Yemen) (Insecta: Odonata)
Abstract. The odonatofauna of the Socotra Archipelago is reviewed on the basis of recently collected material and a literature survey. The occurrence of 17 out of the 18 known species from the main island was confirmed between 2007 and 2010, and information on their distribution patterns was obtained. New information on the species occurring on Abd El-Kuri and Samha islands is presented.
Key words. Dragonflies, Odonata, distribution, Socotra, Yemen.
A new species of the bug genus Cicadula Zetterstedt, 1838 from Turkey (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae)
Abstract. A new species of Cicadula, Cicadula kartali sp. n., is described from Turkey. It is distinguished from the closest species, Cicadula quadrinotata (Fabricus, 1974), by the presence of a pair of lateral spines in the middle of the aedeagal shaft.
Key words. Cicadellidae, Cicadula, new species, Turkey.
Two new species of zerconid mites from Turkey (Acari: Zerconidae)
Abstract. Two new species of zerconid mites, Zercon tefenniensis sp. n. and Prozercon erdogani sp. n., are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected from Turkey.
Key words. Acari, Zerconidae, Zercon, Prozercon, taxonomy, Turkey.
Wilson R. Lourenco, Elise-Anne Leguin, Bernard Duhem
Notes on the type material of Compsobuthus acutecarinatus (Simon, 1882) and C. maindroni (Kraepelin, 1900), and description of a new species from United Arab Emirates (Scorpiones: Buthidae)
Abstract. Two species of the genus Compsobuthus Vachon, 1949, C. acutecarinatus (Simon) and C. maindroni (Kraepelin), have been the subject of several publications in the last three decades. Nevertheless, some doubts remain about their precise identity and range of geographic distribution. We give here precise re-diagnoses in the light of the type material now clearly identified. The holotype of C. acutecarinatus is properly illustrated and measured. A lectotype is designated for C. maindroni, from the large syntype series. A new species of Compsobuthus is also described from United Arab Emirates.
Key words. Scorpion, Buthidae, Compsobuthus, type material, new species, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates.
M. Zafar-ul Islam, Mohammad Basheer, Waliur Rahman, Ahmed Boug
The Honey Badger, Mellivora capensis, killing captive Asian Houbara Bustards, Chlamydotis macqueenii, in Saudi Arabia
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 127-129. | Order article...
Werner Prünte, Reinhard Vohwinkel, Hakan Karaardic, Ali Erdogan
First record of Blyths Pipit, Anthus godlewskii (Taczanowski, 1876), from Turkey (Aves: Motacillidae)
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 129-131. | Order article...
Fatemeh Amiri Baghbadarani, Sara Abasi, Ahmad Barati
Reproductive ecology of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica Linnaeus, 1758) in central Iran
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 132-134. | Order article...
Mohadeseh Afroosheh, Mehdi Rajabizadeh, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Haji Gholi Kami
The Brahminy Blind Snake, Ramphotyphlops braminus (Daudin, 1803), a newcomer to Iran (Ophidia: Typhlopidae)
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 135-137. | Order article...
Zeynel Arslangündogdu, Erdem Hizal
The Western Conifer Seed Bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann, 1910), recorded in Turkey (Heteroptera: Coreidae)
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 138-139. | Order article...
Shalva Barjadze, George Japoshvili, Nana Bakhtadze
New records for the Georgian aphid fauna (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 140-141. | Order article...
A new subspecies of the ground beetle Carabus (Archiplectes) edithae Reitter, 1893 from the Caucasus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 142-144. | Order article...
Önder Calmasur, Hikmet Özbek
Distribution data on the
Cephidae (Hymenoptera: Symphyta)
fauna of Turkey
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 144-146. | Order article...
Masumeh Naderloo, Shahrokh Pashaei Rad
A new record of the genus Spazigaster (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Iran
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 147-148. | Order article...
Murat Özbek, Nurcan Özkan
Amathillina cristata Sars 1894, a Ponto-Caspian amphipod genus newly recorded from Turkey (Amphipoda: Gammaridae)
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 148-150. | Order article...
Seray Yildiz, Süleyman Balik
Nais christinae Kasprzak, 1973: an Oligochaeta species new for Turkey (Annelida: Naididae)
Zoology in the Middle East 50, 2010: 151-152. | Order article...